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9.4.7 Mathematical Symbols

Relational symbols[Where can I find the symbol for ...] are shown in Table 9.7. If you want a negation that is not shown, you can obtain it by preceding the symbol with the command \not. For example: \not\subset produces the symbol image of subset symbol with slash through it .

Table 9.7: Relational Symbols
\approx $ \approx$ \asymp $ \asymp$ \bowtie $ \bowtie$
\cong $ \cong$ \dashv $ \dashv$ \doteq $ \doteq$
\equiv $ \equiv$ \frown $ \frown$ \ge or \geq $ \geq$
\gg $ \gg$ \in $ \in$ \le or \leq $ \leq$
\ll $ \ll$ \mid or | $ \mid$ \models $ \models$
\neq $ \neq$ \ni $ \ni$ \notin $ \notin$
\parallel $ \parallel$ \prec $ \prec$ \preceq $ \preceq$
\perp $ \perp$ \propto $ \propto$ \sim $ \sim$
\simeq $ \simeq$ \smile $ \smile$ \sqsubseteq $ \sqsubseteq$
\sqsupseteq $ \sqsupseteq$ \subset $ \subset$ \subseteq $ \subseteq$
\succ $ \succ$ \succeq $ \succeq$ \supset $ \supset$
\supseteq $ \supseteq$ \vdash $ \vdash$    

Binary operator symbols are shown in Table 9.8, and arrow symbols are shown in Table 9.9. There are also over and under arrows (Table 9.10) that have an argument. The over arrows put an extendible arrow over their argument, and the under arrows put an extendible arrow under their argument. In addition, the amsmath package provides extensible arrows that take a superscript and, optionally, a subscript:




        A \xleftarrow{n+m-p} B \xrightarrow[X]{n+p} C

Image of result: the arrow subscripts and superscript are centred over the arrow.

Table 9.8: Binary Operator Symbols
\amalg $ \amalg$ \ast $ \ast$ \bullet $ \bullet$
\bigcirc $ \bigcirc$ \bigtriangledown $ \bigtriangledown$ \bigtriangleup $ \bigtriangleup$
\cap $ \cap$ \cdot $ \cdot$ \circ $ \circ$
\cup $ \cup$ \dagger $ \dagger$ \ddagger $ \ddagger$
\diamond $ \diamond$ \div $ \div$ \mp $ \mp$
\odot $ \odot$ \ominus $ \ominus$ \oplus $ \oplus$
\oslash $ \oslash$ \otimes $ \otimes$ \pm $ \pm$
\setminus $ \setminus$ \sqcap $ \sqcap$ \sqcup $ \sqcup$
\star $ \star$ \times $ \times$ \triangleleft $ \triangleleft$
\triangleright $ \triangleright$ \uplus $ \uplus$ \vee $ \vee$
\wedge $ \wedge$ \wr $ \wr$    

Table 9.9: Arrow Symbols
\downarrow $ \downarrow$ \Downarrow $ \Downarrow$
\hookleftarrow $ \hookleftarrow$ \hookrightarrow $ \hookrightarrow$
\leftarrow or \gets $ \leftarrow$ \Leftarrow $ \Leftarrow$
\leftharpoondown $ \leftharpoondown$ \leftharpoonup $ \leftharpoonup$
\leftrightarrow $ \leftrightarrow$ \Leftrightarrow $ \Leftrightarrow$
\longleftarrow $ \longleftarrow$ \Longleftarrow $ \Longleftarrow$
\longleftrightarrow $ \longleftrightarrow$ \Longleftrightarrow $ \Longleftrightarrow$
\longmapsto $ \longmapsto$ \longrightarrow $ \longrightarrow$
\Longrightarrow $ \Longrightarrow$ \mapsto $ \mapsto$
\nearrow $ \nearrow$ \nwarrow $ \nwarrow$
\rightarrow or \to $ \to$ \Rightarrow $ \Rightarrow$
\rightharpoondown $ \rightharpoondown$ \rightharpoonup $ \rightharpoonup$
\rightleftharpoons $ \rightleftharpoons$ \searrow $ \searrow$
\swarrow $ \swarrow$ \uparrow $ \uparrow$
\Uparrow $ \Uparrow$ \updownarrow $ \updownarrow$
\Updownarrow $ \Updownarrow$    

Table 9.10: Over and Under Arrows (defined by amsmath)
 Definition Example  
 \overleftarrow{<maths>} \overleftarrow{ABC} $ \overleftarrow{ABC}$  
 \overrightarrow{<maths>} \overrightarrow{ABC} $ \overrightarrow{ABC}$  
 \overleftrightarrow{<maths>} \overleftrightarrow{ABC} $ \overleftrightarrow{ABC}$  
 \underleftarrow{<maths>} \underleftarrow{ABC} $ \underleftarrow{ABC}$  
 \underrightarrow{<maths>} \underrightarrow{ABC} $ \underrightarrow{ABC}$  
 \underleftrightarrow{<maths>} \underleftrightarrow{ABC} $ \underleftrightarrow{ABC}$  

Table 9.11: Symbols with Limits
\sum $ \sum$ \int $ \int$ \oint $ \oint$
\prod $ \prod$ \coprod $ \coprod$ \bigcap $ \bigcap$
\bigcup $ \bigcup$ \bigsqcup $ \bigsqcup$ \bigvee $ \bigvee$
\bigwedge $ \bigwedge$ \bigodot $ \bigodot$ \bigotimes $ \bigotimes$
\bigoplus $ \bigoplus$ \biguplus $ \biguplus$    

Symbols that can have limits are shown in Table 9.11. The size of these symbols depends on whether they are in displayed maths or in-line maths.

Example (Displayed Summation and Product):

The limits of summations and products are placed above and below the symbol in displayed maths:

  f(x) = \sum_{i=1}^{n} x_i + \prod_{i=1}^{n} x_i

Image: f(x) = sum from i equals 1 to n x subscript i
+ product from i equals 1 to n x subscript i.

Example (In-line Summation and Product):

The limits of summations and products are placed to the right of the symbol in in-line maths:

In a line of text:
  f(x) = \sum_{i=1}^{n} x_i + \prod_{i=1}^{n} x_i

Image: as before but summation and product symbols
are smaller and limits are to the side instead of above and below

Multiline Sub- or Superscripts

The amsmath package provides the command:


which can be used for multiline sub- or superscripts. Within the argument <maths> use \\ to separate rows. For example:

    i \in \mathcal{I}\\
    i \neq 0



Image showing typeset output (click here for a more detailed description).

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